14 Dec 2017
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The Chuvash Republic is located in the European part of Russia, in the Middle Volga. 1243.4 thousand people, including about 40% - in rural areas reside in this relatively small area (18.3 thousand sq. km.) The population density (70.4 people per 1 square kilometer) is one of the highest in Russia. The north is dominated by the ravines and the south by the undulating plains.
According to the scientific knowledge, the first people on the Chuvash land appeared 80 thousand years ago. In the IV - III millennium BC Finno-Ugric people lived here, the ancestors of the present Mordovians and Mari. Ogur (Bulgarian) and Suvarian (sabirskie) tribes, from whom the Chuvash people descend, lived in the upper courses of the Irtysh River in Siberia. Their ancestors were Huns, nomadic pastoralists; at the end of the last millennium BC they intermingled with agricultural work and knew how to make tools out of bronze.
In the 10th century AD on the lands of the present Chuvashia an early feudal state arises - Volga Bulgaria. Crafts develop intensively here - jewelry, blacksmithing, pottery.
In the beginning of the 13th century the State of the Bulgarians fell under the yoke of the Golden Horde. Fighting with the Mongols, Bulgarians partially moved between the rivers Sura and Sviyaga where they mixed with Finno-Ugric. Bulgarians (Suvars) called themselves "suvazy", hence arose the name of the people - Chuvash.
In 1438 the Golden Horde fell, and Volga Bulgaria became a part of the Khanate of Kazan. Once flourishing region was ravaged, pagan Chuvash began hiding in the woods to escape Islamization.
Modern Chuvash nation has developed to the 15th century. In 1551 Chuvashia region voluntarily joined the Russian state. The history of the Chuvash people developed so that no matter where they lived, they were always at the crossroads of cultures and civilizations in the lands where there was active interethnic reciprocity where migration flows and economic and trade ties intersected. This fact has left its mark on the ethnic culture and language of the Chuvash people.
Chuvash language belongs to the Turkic language group, while retaining elements of the Finno-Ugric language. There are a lot of Persian and Arabic words in this language. Chuvash letter based on the Slavic alphabet was created in 1871 by the educator of the Chuvash people, organizer of the first national school in Simbirsk Ivan Yakovlevich Yakovlev. At the same time the first books and textbooks in their native language appeared.
In 1920, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin signed a decree on the establishment of the Chuvash autonomy. In 1925 Chuvashia was formed. Since 1992 it is called the Chuvash Republic. According to the population density the Chuvash Republic occupies the fifth place in Russia. They live in many regions of the Russian Federation.
For many years there was not a single ethnic conflict in Chuvashia. It is a region with a stable political situation. The favorable geographical location of Chuvashia in the center of European part of Russia contributes to its development and prosperity.
Chuvashia is a beautiful corner of the Volga region, harmoniously combining antiquity with modernity. The climate of this area, a favorable geographical location and medicinal springs provide excellent conditions for the treatment of various diseases.
The population of the Republic is 1.2 million people. Population density is 68 people per 1 sq.km. Urban population is 60%. The republic is inhabited by 106 ethnic groups, the number of the Chuvash people more than 2/3, the Russian people more than 1/4.
Today, Chuvashes in the European part of Russia are the only Turkic people professing Orthodoxy.
The basis of Chuvash folk art were woodcarving, pottery, weaving, embroidery, patterned weaving, sewing with beads and coins which even in the absence of commercial centers, reached high level of development. The most widespread type of arts and crafts of Chuvashes was embroidery. Characteristic features of the Chuvash embroidery are richness and diversity of patterns original colors, high technique of execution and exquisite sense of rhythm.
Culture (songs, dances)
Traditional musical culture of the Chuvash people was formed by the interaction of Turkic, Iranian and Finno-Ugric components. Performance of the most of the songs was accompanied by playing various musical instruments. Dances of Chuvashes could not be distinguished by great diversity. The movements of the girls (women) in the dance are smooth, plastic as for the men - temperamental, with jumps and squats.
Cheboksary is a big and beautiful city on the Volga River, the capital of Chuvashia. It is situated 650 km away from Moscow on the highway M7. There is a man-made Volga Bay in the center of the city, which was developed during the construction of the hydroelectric power station in the downstream. The wharf Bay is a favorite place for recreation and walks, very popular among the citizens and guests of the city: the picturesque landscapes of the Volga, water cycling, outdoor cafes, elegant fountains break out directly of the Bay.
Novocheboksarsk is the second largest city of Chuvashia. It is the center of the Chemical industry, hydroelectric power station and machine-building.
Kanash is the third largest city of Chuvashia. It is the center of transportation and machine-building. It is a large railway junction.
The Chuvash Republic has a unique natural environment. Water sources are the rivers: Volga, Sura, Tsivil and also 754 lakes. Fish fauna is characterized by an abundance of carp ponds - bream, carp, ide, and roach. The forests are one of the treasures of the Chuvash republic, they cover one third of the territory; they are oak forests, mixed forests, pine forests in the Volga region. The typical representatives of wildlife are the moose, bear, wolf, wild boar, hare, fox, marten and otter. The climate of the republic is moderately continental; the soil is sod-podzol. There are practically no minerals in the Chuvash Republic. Mineral resources are peat, sand, clay, gypsum.
The average temperature in winter is - 11C in summer +20C.
Chuvashia is the territory of great opportunities and comfortable investment. The Republic is a dynamically developing region, which has an extremely favorable transport and geographical location. The Republic has a great industrial potential, the base of which is formed by the production with a high level of processing for example: machine building and metalworking, electricity, electrical engineering, chemical industry, the timber industry complex, light and food industries.
About 113 thousand employees are engaged in agriculture, which is about 20% of all workers in the economy of the Chuvash Republic.
Chuvashia has relatively favorable natural conditions for agriculture. The production of grain, potatoes, vegetables, hops, meat, milk and eggs has historically dominated in the republic. In animal breeding Chuvashia specializes in the production of meat and milk. Here they breed cattle, pigs, sheep, poultry, including geese and ducks. There is a stud farm for raising horses.
Tourism is represented by the numerous medical institutions located on the most picturesque banks of the Volga. Almost one third of the republic’s territory is covered by forests with rich flora. The climate and nature contribute to healthy recreation.
Cheboksary city, Alatyr, Mariinsky Posad, Tsivilsk and Yadrin are included in the list of the historical places of the Russian Federation. Valuable historical and cultural monuments are preserved here. Many of them have federal value for example: Vvedensky Cathedral (1657), Holy Trinity Monastery (1566).
Cheboksary Bay is a pearl of the Chuvash capital. Architectural ensemble on its banks will not leave anyone indifferent, once you see the bay; you fall in love with Cheboksary forever.
The Monument of military glory, Victory Park is the highest point of Cheboksary, from which one can see the entire panorama of the coastal area, the city center, the Volga River and both sides of it.
Famous people born in the Chuvash Republic
Vasily I. Chapaev - commander of the Red Army.
Andriyan G. Nikolayev – pilot - cosmonaut, the third person on the planet, having flown into space.
Stanislav Y. Sadalsky - Honored Artist of the RSFSR, the actor.
Famous Olympic champions of the Chuvash Republic
Irina N. Kalentyeva - cyclist (mountain bike), cross country discipline, 2008 Olympic Games bronze medalist.
Vladimir V. Andreev - athlete (race walking), 2000 Olympic Games Bronze Winner.
Elena N. Nikolaeva - athlete (race walking), 1996 Olympic champion, 1992 Olympics winner.
Valentina M. Egorova - 1992 Olympic Marathon Gold Winner, 1996 Olympic medalist.
Valery N. Yardy - Olympic champion in 1972 in the 100km team road racing.
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